Primitive Type f64

1.0.0 · []
Expand description

A 64-bit floating point type (specifically, the “binary64” type defined in IEEE 754-2008).

This type is very similar to f32, but has increased precision by using twice as many bits. Please see the documentation for f32 or Wikipedia on double precision values for more information.

See also the std::f64::consts module.

Implementations

Returns the largest integer less than or equal to self.

Examples
let f = 3.7_f64;
let g = 3.0_f64;
let h = -3.7_f64;

assert_eq!(f.floor(), 3.0);
assert_eq!(g.floor(), 3.0);
assert_eq!(h.floor(), -4.0);
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Returns the smallest integer greater than or equal to self.

Examples
let f = 3.01_f64;
let g = 4.0_f64;

assert_eq!(f.ceil(), 4.0);
assert_eq!(g.ceil(), 4.0);
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Returns the nearest integer to self. Round half-way cases away from 0.0.

Examples
let f = 3.3_f64;
let g = -3.3_f64;

assert_eq!(f.round(), 3.0);
assert_eq!(g.round(), -3.0);
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Returns the integer part of self. This means that non-integer numbers are always truncated towards zero.

Examples
let f = 3.7_f64;
let g = 3.0_f64;
let h = -3.7_f64;

assert_eq!(f.trunc(), 3.0);
assert_eq!(g.trunc(), 3.0);
assert_eq!(h.trunc(), -3.0);
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Returns the fractional part of self.

Examples
let x = 3.6_f64;
let y = -3.6_f64;
let abs_difference_x = (x.fract() - 0.6).abs();
let abs_difference_y = (y.fract() - (-0.6)).abs();

assert!(abs_difference_x < 1e-10);
assert!(abs_difference_y < 1e-10);
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Computes the absolute value of self.

Examples
let x = 3.5_f64;
let y = -3.5_f64;

let abs_difference_x = (x.abs() - x).abs();
let abs_difference_y = (y.abs() - (-y)).abs();

assert!(abs_difference_x < 1e-10);
assert!(abs_difference_y < 1e-10);

assert!(f64::NAN.abs().is_nan());
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Returns a number that represents the sign of self.

  • 1.0 if the number is positive, +0.0 or INFINITY
  • -1.0 if the number is negative, -0.0 or NEG_INFINITY
  • NaN if the number is NaN
Examples
let f = 3.5_f64;

assert_eq!(f.signum(), 1.0);
assert_eq!(f64::NEG_INFINITY.signum(), -1.0);

assert!(f64::NAN.signum().is_nan());
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Returns a number composed of the magnitude of self and the sign of sign.

Equal to self if the sign of self and sign are the same, otherwise equal to -self. If self is a NaN, then a NaN with the sign bit of sign is returned. Note, however, that conserving the sign bit on NaN across arithmetical operations is not generally guaranteed. See explanation of NaN as a special value for more info.

Examples
let f = 3.5_f64;

assert_eq!(f.copysign(0.42), 3.5_f64);
assert_eq!(f.copysign(-0.42), -3.5_f64);
assert_eq!((-f).copysign(0.42), 3.5_f64);
assert_eq!((-f).copysign(-0.42), -3.5_f64);

assert!(f64::NAN.copysign(1.0).is_nan());
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Fused multiply-add. Computes (self * a) + b with only one rounding error, yielding a more accurate result than an unfused multiply-add.

Using mul_add may be more performant than an unfused multiply-add if the target architecture has a dedicated fma CPU instruction. However, this is not always true, and will be heavily dependant on designing algorithms with specific target hardware in mind.

Examples
let m = 10.0_f64;
let x = 4.0_f64;
let b = 60.0_f64;

// 100.0
let abs_difference = (m.mul_add(x, b) - ((m * x) + b)).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1e-10);
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Calculates Euclidean division, the matching method for rem_euclid.

This computes the integer n such that self = n * rhs + self.rem_euclid(rhs). In other words, the result is self / rhs rounded to the integer n such that self >= n * rhs.

Examples
let a: f64 = 7.0;
let b = 4.0;
assert_eq!(a.div_euclid(b), 1.0); // 7.0 > 4.0 * 1.0
assert_eq!((-a).div_euclid(b), -2.0); // -7.0 >= 4.0 * -2.0
assert_eq!(a.div_euclid(-b), -1.0); // 7.0 >= -4.0 * -1.0
assert_eq!((-a).div_euclid(-b), 2.0); // -7.0 >= -4.0 * 2.0
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Calculates the least nonnegative remainder of self (mod rhs).

In particular, the return value r satisfies 0.0 <= r < rhs.abs() in most cases. However, due to a floating point round-off error it can result in r == rhs.abs(), violating the mathematical definition, if self is much smaller than rhs.abs() in magnitude and self < 0.0. This result is not an element of the function’s codomain, but it is the closest floating point number in the real numbers and thus fulfills the property self == self.div_euclid(rhs) * rhs + self.rem_euclid(rhs) approximatively.

Examples
let a: f64 = 7.0;
let b = 4.0;
assert_eq!(a.rem_euclid(b), 3.0);
assert_eq!((-a).rem_euclid(b), 1.0);
assert_eq!(a.rem_euclid(-b), 3.0);
assert_eq!((-a).rem_euclid(-b), 1.0);
// limitation due to round-off error
assert!((-f64::EPSILON).rem_euclid(3.0) != 0.0);
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Raises a number to an integer power.

Using this function is generally faster than using powf. It might have a different sequence of rounding operations than powf, so the results are not guaranteed to agree.

Examples
let x = 2.0_f64;
let abs_difference = (x.powi(2) - (x * x)).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1e-10);
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Raises a number to a floating point power.

Examples
let x = 2.0_f64;
let abs_difference = (x.powf(2.0) - (x * x)).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1e-10);
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Returns the square root of a number.

Returns NaN if self is a negative number other than -0.0.

Examples
let positive = 4.0_f64;
let negative = -4.0_f64;
let negative_zero = -0.0_f64;

let abs_difference = (positive.sqrt() - 2.0).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1e-10);
assert!(negative.sqrt().is_nan());
assert!(negative_zero.sqrt() == negative_zero);
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Returns e^(self), (the exponential function).

Examples
let one = 1.0_f64;
// e^1
let e = one.exp();

// ln(e) - 1 == 0
let abs_difference = (e.ln() - 1.0).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1e-10);
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Returns 2^(self).

Examples
let f = 2.0_f64;

// 2^2 - 4 == 0
let abs_difference = (f.exp2() - 4.0).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1e-10);
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Returns the natural logarithm of the number.

Examples
let one = 1.0_f64;
// e^1
let e = one.exp();

// ln(e) - 1 == 0
let abs_difference = (e.ln() - 1.0).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1e-10);
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Returns the logarithm of the number with respect to an arbitrary base.

The result might not be correctly rounded owing to implementation details; self.log2() can produce more accurate results for base 2, and self.log10() can produce more accurate results for base 10.

Examples
let twenty_five = 25.0_f64;

// log5(25) - 2 == 0
let abs_difference = (twenty_five.log(5.0) - 2.0).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1e-10);
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Returns the base 2 logarithm of the number.

Examples
let four = 4.0_f64;

// log2(4) - 2 == 0
let abs_difference = (four.log2() - 2.0).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1e-10);
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Returns the base 10 logarithm of the number.

Examples
let hundred = 100.0_f64;

// log10(100) - 2 == 0
let abs_difference = (hundred.log10() - 2.0).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1e-10);
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👎Deprecated since 1.10.0: you probably meant (self - other).abs(): this operation is (self - other).max(0.0) except that abs_sub also propagates NaNs (also known as fdim in C). If you truly need the positive difference, consider using that expression or the C function fdim, depending on how you wish to handle NaN (please consider filing an issue describing your use-case too).

The positive difference of two numbers.

  • If self <= other: 0:0
  • Else: self - other
Examples
let x = 3.0_f64;
let y = -3.0_f64;

let abs_difference_x = (x.abs_sub(1.0) - 2.0).abs();
let abs_difference_y = (y.abs_sub(1.0) - 0.0).abs();

assert!(abs_difference_x < 1e-10);
assert!(abs_difference_y < 1e-10);
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Returns the cube root of a number.

Examples
let x = 8.0_f64;

// x^(1/3) - 2 == 0
let abs_difference = (x.cbrt() - 2.0).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1e-10);
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Calculates the length of the hypotenuse of a right-angle triangle given legs of length x and y.

Examples
let x = 2.0_f64;
let y = 3.0_f64;

// sqrt(x^2 + y^2)
let abs_difference = (x.hypot(y) - (x.powi(2) + y.powi(2)).sqrt()).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1e-10);
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Computes the sine of a number (in radians).

Examples
let x = std::f64::consts::FRAC_PI_2;

let abs_difference = (x.sin() - 1.0).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1e-10);
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Computes the cosine of a number (in radians).

Examples
let x = 2.0 * std::f64::consts::PI;

let abs_difference = (x.cos() - 1.0).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1e-10);
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Computes the tangent of a number (in radians).

Examples
let x = std::f64::consts::FRAC_PI_4;
let abs_difference = (x.tan() - 1.0).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1e-14);
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Computes the arcsine of a number. Return value is in radians in the range [-pi/2, pi/2] or NaN if the number is outside the range [-1, 1].

Examples
let f = std::f64::consts::FRAC_PI_2;

// asin(sin(pi/2))
let abs_difference = (f.sin().asin() - std::f64::consts::FRAC_PI_2).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1e-10);
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Computes the arccosine of a number. Return value is in radians in the range [0, pi] or NaN if the number is outside the range [-1, 1].

Examples
let f = std::f64::consts::FRAC_PI_4;

// acos(cos(pi/4))
let abs_difference = (f.cos().acos() - std::f64::consts::FRAC_PI_4).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1e-10);
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Computes the arctangent of a number. Return value is in radians in the range [-pi/2, pi/2];

Examples
let f = 1.0_f64;

// atan(tan(1))
let abs_difference = (f.tan().atan() - 1.0).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1e-10);
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Computes the four quadrant arctangent of self (y) and other (x) in radians.

  • x = 0, y = 0: 0
  • x >= 0: arctan(y/x) -> [-pi/2, pi/2]
  • y >= 0: arctan(y/x) + pi -> (pi/2, pi]
  • y < 0: arctan(y/x) - pi -> (-pi, -pi/2)
Examples
// Positive angles measured counter-clockwise
// from positive x axis
// -pi/4 radians (45 deg clockwise)
let x1 = 3.0_f64;
let y1 = -3.0_f64;

// 3pi/4 radians (135 deg counter-clockwise)
let x2 = -3.0_f64;
let y2 = 3.0_f64;

let abs_difference_1 = (y1.atan2(x1) - (-std::f64::consts::FRAC_PI_4)).abs();
let abs_difference_2 = (y2.atan2(x2) - (3.0 * std::f64::consts::FRAC_PI_4)).abs();

assert!(abs_difference_1 < 1e-10);
assert!(abs_difference_2 < 1e-10);
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Simultaneously computes the sine and cosine of the number, x. Returns (sin(x), cos(x)).

Examples
let x = std::f64::consts::FRAC_PI_4;
let f = x.sin_cos();

let abs_difference_0 = (f.0 - x.sin()).abs();
let abs_difference_1 = (f.1 - x.cos()).abs();

assert!(abs_difference_0 < 1e-10);
assert!(abs_difference_1 < 1e-10);
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Returns e^(self) - 1 in a way that is accurate even if the number is close to zero.

Examples
let x = 1e-16_f64;

// for very small x, e^x is approximately 1 + x + x^2 / 2
let approx = x + x * x / 2.0;
let abs_difference = (x.exp_m1() - approx).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1e-20);
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Returns ln(1+n) (natural logarithm) more accurately than if the operations were performed separately.

Examples
let x = 1e-16_f64;

// for very small x, ln(1 + x) is approximately x - x^2 / 2
let approx = x - x * x / 2.0;
let abs_difference = (x.ln_1p() - approx).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1e-20);
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Hyperbolic sine function.

Examples
let e = std::f64::consts::E;
let x = 1.0_f64;

let f = x.sinh();
// Solving sinh() at 1 gives `(e^2-1)/(2e)`
let g = ((e * e) - 1.0) / (2.0 * e);
let abs_difference = (f - g).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1e-10);
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Hyperbolic cosine function.

Examples
let e = std::f64::consts::E;
let x = 1.0_f64;
let f = x.cosh();
// Solving cosh() at 1 gives this result
let g = ((e * e) + 1.0) / (2.0 * e);
let abs_difference = (f - g).abs();

// Same result
assert!(abs_difference < 1.0e-10);
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Hyperbolic tangent function.

Examples
let e = std::f64::consts::E;
let x = 1.0_f64;

let f = x.tanh();
// Solving tanh() at 1 gives `(1 - e^(-2))/(1 + e^(-2))`
let g = (1.0 - e.powi(-2)) / (1.0 + e.powi(-2));
let abs_difference = (f - g).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1.0e-10);
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Inverse hyperbolic sine function.

Examples
let x = 1.0_f64;
let f = x.sinh().asinh();

let abs_difference = (f - x).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1.0e-10);
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Inverse hyperbolic cosine function.

Examples
let x = 1.0_f64;
let f = x.cosh().acosh();

let abs_difference = (f - x).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1.0e-10);
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Inverse hyperbolic tangent function.

Examples
let e = std::f64::consts::E;
let f = e.tanh().atanh();

let abs_difference = (f - e).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1.0e-10);
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The radix or base of the internal representation of f64.

Number of significant digits in base 2.

Approximate number of significant digits in base 10.

Machine epsilon value for f64.

This is the difference between 1.0 and the next larger representable number.

Smallest finite f64 value.

Smallest positive normal f64 value.

Largest finite f64 value.

One greater than the minimum possible normal power of 2 exponent.

Maximum possible power of 2 exponent.

Minimum possible normal power of 10 exponent.

Maximum possible power of 10 exponent.

Not a Number (NaN).

Note that IEEE 754 doesn’t define just a single NaN value; a plethora of bit patterns are considered to be NaN. Furthermore, the standard makes a difference between a “signaling” and a “quiet” NaN, and allows inspecting its “payload” (the unspecified bits in the bit pattern). This constant isn’t guaranteed to equal to any specific NaN bitpattern, and the stability of its representation over Rust versions and target platforms isn’t guaranteed.

Infinity (∞).

Negative infinity (−∞).

Returns true if this value is NaN.

let nan = f64::NAN;
let f = 7.0_f64;

assert!(nan.is_nan());
assert!(!f.is_nan());
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Returns true if this value is positive infinity or negative infinity, and false otherwise.

let f = 7.0f64;
let inf = f64::INFINITY;
let neg_inf = f64::NEG_INFINITY;
let nan = f64::NAN;

assert!(!f.is_infinite());
assert!(!nan.is_infinite());

assert!(inf.is_infinite());
assert!(neg_inf.is_infinite());
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Returns true if this number is neither infinite nor NaN.

let f = 7.0f64;
let inf: f64 = f64::INFINITY;
let neg_inf: f64 = f64::NEG_INFINITY;
let nan: f64 = f64::NAN;

assert!(f.is_finite());

assert!(!nan.is_finite());
assert!(!inf.is_finite());
assert!(!neg_inf.is_finite());
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Returns true if the number is subnormal.

let min = f64::MIN_POSITIVE; // 2.2250738585072014e-308_f64
let max = f64::MAX;
let lower_than_min = 1.0e-308_f64;
let zero = 0.0_f64;

assert!(!min.is_subnormal());
assert!(!max.is_subnormal());

assert!(!zero.is_subnormal());
assert!(!f64::NAN.is_subnormal());
assert!(!f64::INFINITY.is_subnormal());
// Values between `0` and `min` are Subnormal.
assert!(lower_than_min.is_subnormal());
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Returns true if the number is neither zero, infinite, subnormal, or NaN.

let min = f64::MIN_POSITIVE; // 2.2250738585072014e-308f64
let max = f64::MAX;
let lower_than_min = 1.0e-308_f64;
let zero = 0.0f64;

assert!(min.is_normal());
assert!(max.is_normal());

assert!(!zero.is_normal());
assert!(!f64::NAN.is_normal());
assert!(!f64::INFINITY.is_normal());
// Values between `0` and `min` are Subnormal.
assert!(!lower_than_min.is_normal());
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Returns the floating point category of the number. If only one property is going to be tested, it is generally faster to use the specific predicate instead.

use std::num::FpCategory;

let num = 12.4_f64;
let inf = f64::INFINITY;

assert_eq!(num.classify(), FpCategory::Normal);
assert_eq!(inf.classify(), FpCategory::Infinite);
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Returns true if self has a positive sign, including +0.0, NaNs with positive sign bit and positive infinity. Note that IEEE 754 doesn’t assign any meaning to the sign bit in case of a NaN, and as Rust doesn’t guarantee that the bit pattern of NaNs are conserved over arithmetic operations, the result of is_sign_positive on a NaN might produce an unexpected result in some cases. See explanation of NaN as a special value for more info.

let f = 7.0_f64;
let g = -7.0_f64;

assert!(f.is_sign_positive());
assert!(!g.is_sign_positive());
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👎Deprecated since 1.0.0: renamed to is_sign_positive

Returns true if self has a negative sign, including -0.0, NaNs with negative sign bit and negative infinity. Note that IEEE 754 doesn’t assign any meaning to the sign bit in case of a NaN, and as Rust doesn’t guarantee that the bit pattern of NaNs are conserved over arithmetic operations, the result of is_sign_negative on a NaN might produce an unexpected result in some cases. See explanation of NaN as a special value for more info.

let f = 7.0_f64;
let g = -7.0_f64;

assert!(!f.is_sign_negative());
assert!(g.is_sign_negative());
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👎Deprecated since 1.0.0: renamed to is_sign_negative
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (float_next_up_down #91399)

Returns the least number greater than self.

Let TINY be the smallest representable positive f64. Then,

  • if self.is_nan(), this returns self;
  • if self is NEG_INFINITY, this returns MIN;
  • if self is -TINY, this returns -0.0;
  • if self is -0.0 or +0.0, this returns TINY;
  • if self is MAX or INFINITY, this returns INFINITY;
  • otherwise the unique least value greater than self is returned.

The identity x.next_up() == -(-x).next_down() holds for all non-NaN x. When x is finite x == x.next_up().next_down() also holds.

#![feature(float_next_up_down)]
// f64::EPSILON is the difference between 1.0 and the next number up.
assert_eq!(1.0f64.next_up(), 1.0 + f64::EPSILON);
// But not for most numbers.
assert!(0.1f64.next_up() < 0.1 + f64::EPSILON);
assert_eq!(9007199254740992f64.next_up(), 9007199254740994.0);
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🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (float_next_up_down #91399)

Returns the greatest number less than self.

Let TINY be the smallest representable positive f64. Then,

  • if self.is_nan(), this returns self;
  • if self is INFINITY, this returns MAX;
  • if self is TINY, this returns 0.0;
  • if self is -0.0 or +0.0, this returns -TINY;
  • if self is MIN or NEG_INFINITY, this returns NEG_INFINITY;
  • otherwise the unique greatest value less than self is returned.

The identity x.next_down() == -(-x).next_up() holds for all non-NaN x. When x is finite x == x.next_down().next_up() also holds.

#![feature(float_next_up_down)]
let x = 1.0f64;
// Clamp value into range [0, 1).
let clamped = x.clamp(0.0, 1.0f64.next_down());
assert!(clamped < 1.0);
assert_eq!(clamped.next_up(), 1.0);
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Takes the reciprocal (inverse) of a number, 1/x.

let x = 2.0_f64;
let abs_difference = (x.recip() - (1.0 / x)).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1e-10);
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Converts radians to degrees.

let angle = std::f64::consts::PI;

let abs_difference = (angle.to_degrees() - 180.0).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1e-10);
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Converts degrees to radians.

let angle = 180.0_f64;

let abs_difference = (angle.to_radians() - std::f64::consts::PI).abs();

assert!(abs_difference < 1e-10);
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Returns the maximum of the two numbers, ignoring NaN.

If one of the arguments is NaN, then the other argument is returned. This follows the IEEE 754-2008 semantics for maxNum, except for handling of signaling NaNs; this function handles all NaNs the same way and avoids maxNum’s problems with associativity. This also matches the behavior of libm’s fmax.

let x = 1.0_f64;
let y = 2.0_f64;

assert_eq!(x.max(y), y);
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Returns the minimum of the two numbers, ignoring NaN.

If one of the arguments is NaN, then the other argument is returned. This follows the IEEE 754-2008 semantics for minNum, except for handling of signaling NaNs; this function handles all NaNs the same way and avoids minNum’s problems with associativity. This also matches the behavior of libm’s fmin.

let x = 1.0_f64;
let y = 2.0_f64;

assert_eq!(x.min(y), x);
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🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (float_minimum_maximum #91079)

Returns the maximum of the two numbers, propagating NaN.

This returns NaN when either argument is NaN, as opposed to f64::max which only returns NaN when both arguments are NaN.

#![feature(float_minimum_maximum)]
let x = 1.0_f64;
let y = 2.0_f64;

assert_eq!(x.maximum(y), y);
assert!(x.maximum(f64::NAN).is_nan());
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If one of the arguments is NaN, then NaN is returned. Otherwise this returns the greater of the two numbers. For this operation, -0.0 is considered to be less than +0.0. Note that this follows the semantics specified in IEEE 754-2019.

Also note that “propagation” of NaNs here doesn’t necessarily mean that the bitpattern of a NaN operand is conserved; see explanation of NaN as a special value for more info.

🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (float_minimum_maximum #91079)

Returns the minimum of the two numbers, propagating NaN.

This returns NaN when either argument is NaN, as opposed to f64::min which only returns NaN when both arguments are NaN.

#![feature(float_minimum_maximum)]
let x = 1.0_f64;
let y = 2.0_f64;

assert_eq!(x.minimum(y), x);
assert!(x.minimum(f64::NAN).is_nan());
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If one of the arguments is NaN, then NaN is returned. Otherwise this returns the lesser of the two numbers. For this operation, -0.0 is considered to be less than +0.0. Note that this follows the semantics specified in IEEE 754-2019.

Also note that “propagation” of NaNs here doesn’t necessarily mean that the bitpattern of a NaN operand is conserved; see explanation of NaN as a special value for more info.

Rounds toward zero and converts to any primitive integer type, assuming that the value is finite and fits in that type.

let value = 4.6_f64;
let rounded = unsafe { value.to_int_unchecked::<u16>() };
assert_eq!(rounded, 4);

let value = -128.9_f64;
let rounded = unsafe { value.to_int_unchecked::<i8>() };
assert_eq!(rounded, i8::MIN);
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Safety

The value must:

  • Not be NaN
  • Not be infinite
  • Be representable in the return type Int, after truncating off its fractional part

Raw transmutation to u64.

This is currently identical to transmute::<f64, u64>(self) on all platforms.

See from_bits for some discussion of the portability of this operation (there are almost no issues).

Note that this function is distinct from as casting, which attempts to preserve the numeric value, and not the bitwise value.

Examples
assert!((1f64).to_bits() != 1f64 as u64); // to_bits() is not casting!
assert_eq!((12.5f64).to_bits(), 0x4029000000000000);
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Raw transmutation from u64.

This is currently identical to transmute::<u64, f64>(v) on all platforms. It turns out this is incredibly portable, for two reasons:

  • Floats and Ints have the same endianness on all supported platforms.
  • IEEE 754 very precisely specifies the bit layout of floats.

However there is one caveat: prior to the 2008 version of IEEE 754, how to interpret the NaN signaling bit wasn’t actually specified. Most platforms (notably x86 and ARM) picked the interpretation that was ultimately standardized in 2008, but some didn’t (notably MIPS). As a result, all signaling NaNs on MIPS are quiet NaNs on x86, and vice-versa.

Rather than trying to preserve signaling-ness cross-platform, this implementation favors preserving the exact bits. This means that any payloads encoded in NaNs will be preserved even if the result of this method is sent over the network from an x86 machine to a MIPS one.

If the results of this method are only manipulated by the same architecture that produced them, then there is no portability concern.

If the input isn’t NaN, then there is no portability concern.

If you don’t care about signaling-ness (very likely), then there is no portability concern.

Note that this function is distinct from as casting, which attempts to preserve the numeric value, and not the bitwise value.

Examples
let v = f64::from_bits(0x4029000000000000);
assert_eq!(v, 12.5);
Run

Return the memory representation of this floating point number as a byte array in big-endian (network) byte order.

See from_bits for some discussion of the portability of this operation (there are almost no issues).

Examples
let bytes = 12.5f64.to_be_bytes();
assert_eq!(bytes, [0x40, 0x29, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00]);
Run

Return the memory representation of this floating point number as a byte array in little-endian byte order.

See from_bits for some discussion of the portability of this operation (there are almost no issues).

Examples
let bytes = 12.5f64.to_le_bytes();
assert_eq!(bytes, [0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x29, 0x40]);
Run

Return the memory representation of this floating point number as a byte array in native byte order.

As the target platform’s native endianness is used, portable code should use to_be_bytes or to_le_bytes, as appropriate, instead.

See from_bits for some discussion of the portability of this operation (there are almost no issues).

Examples
let bytes = 12.5f64.to_ne_bytes();
assert_eq!(
    bytes,
    if cfg!(target_endian = "big") {
        [0x40, 0x29, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00]
    } else {
        [0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x29, 0x40]
    }
);
Run

Create a floating point value from its representation as a byte array in big endian.

See from_bits for some discussion of the portability of this operation (there are almost no issues).

Examples
let value = f64::from_be_bytes([0x40, 0x29, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00]);
assert_eq!(value, 12.5);
Run

Create a floating point value from its representation as a byte array in little endian.

See from_bits for some discussion of the portability of this operation (there are almost no issues).

Examples
let value = f64::from_le_bytes([0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x29, 0x40]);
assert_eq!(value, 12.5);
Run

Create a floating point value from its representation as a byte array in native endian.

As the target platform’s native endianness is used, portable code likely wants to use from_be_bytes or from_le_bytes, as appropriate instead.

See from_bits for some discussion of the portability of this operation (there are almost no issues).

Examples
let value = f64::from_ne_bytes(if cfg!(target_endian = "big") {
    [0x40, 0x29, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00]
} else {
    [0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x29, 0x40]
});
assert_eq!(value, 12.5);
Run

Return the ordering between self and other.

Unlike the standard partial comparison between floating point numbers, this comparison always produces an ordering in accordance to the totalOrder predicate as defined in the IEEE 754 (2008 revision) floating point standard. The values are ordered in the following sequence:

  • negative quiet NaN
  • negative signaling NaN
  • negative infinity
  • negative numbers
  • negative subnormal numbers
  • negative zero
  • positive zero
  • positive subnormal numbers
  • positive numbers
  • positive infinity
  • positive signaling NaN
  • positive quiet NaN.

The ordering established by this function does not always agree with the PartialOrd and PartialEq implementations of f64. For example, they consider negative and positive zero equal, while total_cmp doesn’t.

The interpretation of the signaling NaN bit follows the definition in the IEEE 754 standard, which may not match the interpretation by some of the older, non-conformant (e.g. MIPS) hardware implementations.

Example
struct GoodBoy {
    name: String,
    weight: f64,
}

let mut bois = vec![
    GoodBoy { name: "Pucci".to_owned(), weight: 0.1 },
    GoodBoy { name: "Woofer".to_owned(), weight: 99.0 },
    GoodBoy { name: "Yapper".to_owned(), weight: 10.0 },
    GoodBoy { name: "Chonk".to_owned(), weight: f64::INFINITY },
    GoodBoy { name: "Abs. Unit".to_owned(), weight: f64::NAN },
    GoodBoy { name: "Floaty".to_owned(), weight: -5.0 },
];

bois.sort_by(|a, b| a.weight.total_cmp(&b.weight));
Run

Restrict a value to a certain interval unless it is NaN.

Returns max if self is greater than max, and min if self is less than min. Otherwise this returns self.

Note that this function returns NaN if the initial value was NaN as well.

Panics

Panics if min > max, min is NaN, or max is NaN.

Examples
assert!((-3.0f64).clamp(-2.0, 1.0) == -2.0);
assert!((0.0f64).clamp(-2.0, 1.0) == 0.0);
assert!((2.0f64).clamp(-2.0, 1.0) == 1.0);
assert!((f64::NAN).clamp(-2.0, 1.0).is_nan());
Run

Trait Implementations

The resulting type after applying the + operator.
Performs the + operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the + operator.
Performs the + operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the + operator.
Performs the + operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the + operator.
Performs the + operation. Read more
Performs the += operation. Read more
Performs the += operation. Read more
Returns a copy of the value. Read more
Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more
Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more

Returns the default value of 0.0

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more
The resulting type after applying the / operator.
Performs the / operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the / operator.
Performs the / operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the / operator.
Performs the / operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the / operator.
Performs the / operation. Read more
Performs the /= operation. Read more
Performs the /= operation. Read more
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (convert_float_to_int #67057)
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (convert_float_to_int #67057)
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (convert_float_to_int #67057)
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (convert_float_to_int #67057)
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (convert_float_to_int #67057)
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (convert_float_to_int #67057)
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (convert_float_to_int #67057)
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (convert_float_to_int #67057)
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (convert_float_to_int #67057)
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (convert_float_to_int #67057)
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (convert_float_to_int #67057)
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (convert_float_to_int #67057)

Converts f32 to f64 losslessly.

Converts i16 to f64 losslessly.

Converts i32 to f64 losslessly.

Converts i8 to f64 losslessly.

Converts u16 to f64 losslessly.

Converts u32 to f64 losslessly.

Converts u8 to f64 losslessly.

Converts a string in base 10 to a float. Accepts an optional decimal exponent.

This function accepts strings such as

  • ‘3.14’
  • ‘-3.14’
  • ‘2.5E10’, or equivalently, ‘2.5e10’
  • ‘2.5E-10’
  • ‘5.’
  • ‘.5’, or, equivalently, ‘0.5’
  • ‘inf’, ‘-inf’, ‘+infinity’, ‘NaN’

Note that alphabetical characters are not case-sensitive.

Leading and trailing whitespace represent an error.

Grammar

All strings that adhere to the following EBNF grammar when lowercased will result in an Ok being returned:

Float  ::= Sign? ( 'inf' | 'infinity' | 'nan' | Number )
Number ::= ( Digit+ |
             Digit+ '.' Digit* |
             Digit* '.' Digit+ ) Exp?
Exp    ::= 'e' Sign? Digit+
Sign   ::= [+-]
Digit  ::= [0-9]
Arguments
  • src - A string
Return value

Err(ParseFloatError) if the string did not represent a valid number. Otherwise, Ok(n) where n is the closest representable floating-point number to the number represented by src (following the same rules for rounding as for the results of primitive operations).

The associated error which can be returned from parsing.
Formats the value using the given formatter.
The resulting type after applying the * operator.
Performs the * operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the * operator.
Performs the * operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the * operator.
Performs the * operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the * operator.
Performs the * operation. Read more
Performs the *= operation. Read more
Performs the *= operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the - operator.
Performs the unary - operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the - operator.
Performs the unary - operation. Read more
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason. Read more
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
Method which takes an iterator and generates Self from the elements by multiplying the items. Read more
Method which takes an iterator and generates Self from the elements by multiplying the items. Read more
The resulting type after applying the % operator.
Performs the % operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the % operator.
Performs the % operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the % operator.
Performs the % operation. Read more

The remainder from the division of two floats.

The remainder has the same sign as the dividend and is computed as: x - (x / y).trunc() * y.

Examples

let x: f32 = 50.50;
let y: f32 = 8.125;
let remainder = x - (x / y).trunc() * y;

// The answer to both operations is 1.75
assert_eq!(x % y, remainder);
Run
The resulting type after applying the % operator.
Performs the % operation. Read more
Performs the %= operation. Read more
Performs the %= operation. Read more
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (portable_simd #86656)
The mask element type corresponding to this element type.
The resulting type after applying the - operator.
Performs the - operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the - operator.
Performs the - operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the - operator.
Performs the - operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the - operator.
Performs the - operation. Read more
Performs the -= operation. Read more
Performs the -= operation. Read more
Method which takes an iterator and generates Self from the elements by “summing up” the items. Read more
Method which takes an iterator and generates Self from the elements by “summing up” the items. Read more
Formats the value using the given formatter.

Auto Trait Implementations

Blanket Implementations

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more
Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Returns the argument unchanged.

Calls U::from(self).

That is, this conversion is whatever the implementation of From<T> for U chooses to do.

The resulting type after obtaining ownership.
Creates owned data from borrowed data, usually by cloning. Read more
Uses borrowed data to replace owned data, usually by cloning. Read more
Converts the given value to a String. Read more
The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
Performs the conversion.
The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
Performs the conversion.