Struct std::alloc::Global

source ·
pub struct Global;
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (allocator_api #32838)
Expand description

The global memory allocator.

This type implements the Allocator trait by forwarding calls to the allocator registered with the #[global_allocator] attribute if there is one, or the std crate’s default.

Note: while this type is unstable, the functionality it provides can be accessed through the free functions in alloc.

Implementations§

Allocates memory on the heap and then places x into it.

This doesn’t actually allocate if T is zero-sized.

Examples
let five = Box::new(5);
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (new_uninit #63291)

Constructs a new box with uninitialized contents.

Examples
#![feature(new_uninit)]

let mut five = Box::<u32>::new_uninit();

let five = unsafe {
    // Deferred initialization:
    five.as_mut_ptr().write(5);

    five.assume_init()
};

assert_eq!(*five, 5)
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (new_uninit #63291)

Constructs a new Box with uninitialized contents, with the memory being filled with 0 bytes.

See MaybeUninit::zeroed for examples of correct and incorrect usage of this method.

Examples
#![feature(new_uninit)]

let zero = Box::<u32>::new_zeroed();
let zero = unsafe { zero.assume_init() };

assert_eq!(*zero, 0)
Run

Constructs a new Pin<Box<T>>. If T does not implement Unpin, then x will be pinned in memory and unable to be moved.

Constructing and pinning of the Box can also be done in two steps: Box::pin(x) does the same as Box::into_pin(Box::new(x)). Consider using into_pin if you already have a Box<T>, or if you want to construct a (pinned) Box in a different way than with Box::new.

🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (allocator_api #32838)

Allocates memory on the heap then places x into it, returning an error if the allocation fails

This doesn’t actually allocate if T is zero-sized.

Examples
#![feature(allocator_api)]

let five = Box::try_new(5)?;
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (allocator_api #32838)

Constructs a new box with uninitialized contents on the heap, returning an error if the allocation fails

Examples
#![feature(allocator_api, new_uninit)]

let mut five = Box::<u32>::try_new_uninit()?;

let five = unsafe {
    // Deferred initialization:
    five.as_mut_ptr().write(5);

    five.assume_init()
};

assert_eq!(*five, 5);
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (allocator_api #32838)

Constructs a new Box with uninitialized contents, with the memory being filled with 0 bytes on the heap

See MaybeUninit::zeroed for examples of correct and incorrect usage of this method.

Examples
#![feature(allocator_api, new_uninit)]

let zero = Box::<u32>::try_new_zeroed()?;
let zero = unsafe { zero.assume_init() };

assert_eq!(*zero, 0);
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (new_uninit #63291)

Constructs a new boxed slice with uninitialized contents.

Examples
#![feature(new_uninit)]

let mut values = Box::<[u32]>::new_uninit_slice(3);

let values = unsafe {
    // Deferred initialization:
    values[0].as_mut_ptr().write(1);
    values[1].as_mut_ptr().write(2);
    values[2].as_mut_ptr().write(3);

    values.assume_init()
};

assert_eq!(*values, [1, 2, 3])
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (new_uninit #63291)

Constructs a new boxed slice with uninitialized contents, with the memory being filled with 0 bytes.

See MaybeUninit::zeroed for examples of correct and incorrect usage of this method.

Examples
#![feature(new_uninit)]

let values = Box::<[u32]>::new_zeroed_slice(3);
let values = unsafe { values.assume_init() };

assert_eq!(*values, [0, 0, 0])
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (allocator_api #32838)

Constructs a new boxed slice with uninitialized contents. Returns an error if the allocation fails

Examples
#![feature(allocator_api, new_uninit)]

let mut values = Box::<[u32]>::try_new_uninit_slice(3)?;
let values = unsafe {
    // Deferred initialization:
    values[0].as_mut_ptr().write(1);
    values[1].as_mut_ptr().write(2);
    values[2].as_mut_ptr().write(3);
    values.assume_init()
};

assert_eq!(*values, [1, 2, 3]);
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (allocator_api #32838)

Constructs a new boxed slice with uninitialized contents, with the memory being filled with 0 bytes. Returns an error if the allocation fails

See MaybeUninit::zeroed for examples of correct and incorrect usage of this method.

Examples
#![feature(allocator_api, new_uninit)]

let values = Box::<[u32]>::try_new_zeroed_slice(3)?;
let values = unsafe { values.assume_init() };

assert_eq!(*values, [0, 0, 0]);
Run

Constructs a box from a raw pointer.

After calling this function, the raw pointer is owned by the resulting Box. Specifically, the Box destructor will call the destructor of T and free the allocated memory. For this to be safe, the memory must have been allocated in accordance with the memory layout used by Box .

Safety

This function is unsafe because improper use may lead to memory problems. For example, a double-free may occur if the function is called twice on the same raw pointer.

The safety conditions are described in the memory layout section.

Examples

Recreate a Box which was previously converted to a raw pointer using Box::into_raw:

let x = Box::new(5);
let ptr = Box::into_raw(x);
let x = unsafe { Box::from_raw(ptr) };
Run

Manually create a Box from scratch by using the global allocator:

use std::alloc::{alloc, Layout};

unsafe {
    let ptr = alloc(Layout::new::<i32>()) as *mut i32;
    // In general .write is required to avoid attempting to destruct
    // the (uninitialized) previous contents of `ptr`, though for this
    // simple example `*ptr = 5` would have worked as well.
    ptr.write(5);
    let x = Box::from_raw(ptr);
}
Run

Trait Implementations§

🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (allocator_api #32838)
Attempts to allocate a block of memory. Read more
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (allocator_api #32838)
Behaves like allocate, but also ensures that the returned memory is zero-initialized. Read more
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (allocator_api #32838)
Deallocates the memory referenced by ptr. Read more
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (allocator_api #32838)
Attempts to extend the memory block. Read more
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (allocator_api #32838)
Behaves like grow, but also ensures that the new contents are set to zero before being returned. Read more
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (allocator_api #32838)
Attempts to shrink the memory block. Read more
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (allocator_api #32838)
Creates a “by reference” adapter for this instance of Allocator. Read more
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (async_iterator #79024)
The type of items yielded by the async iterator.
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (async_iterator #79024)
Attempt to pull out the next value of this async iterator, registering the current task for wakeup if the value is not yet available, and returning None if the async iterator is exhausted. Read more
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (async_iterator #79024)
Returns the bounds on the remaining length of the async iterator. Read more
Returns a copy of the value. Read more
Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more
Returns a copy of the value. Read more
Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more
Returns a copy of the value. Read more
Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more
Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more
Returns the “default value” for a type. Read more
Returns the “default value” for a type. Read more

Creates a Box<T>, with the Default value for T.

Returns the “default value” for a type. Read more
Returns the “default value” for a type. Read more
👎Deprecated since 1.42.0: use the Display impl or to_string()
👎Deprecated since 1.33.0: replaced by Error::source, which can support downcasting
The lower-level source of this error, if any. Read more
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (error_type_id #60784)
Gets the TypeId of self.
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (error_generic_member_access #99301)
Provides type based access to context intended for error reports. Read more

Converts a &[T] into a Box<[T]>

This conversion allocates on the heap and performs a copy of slice and its contents.

Examples
// create a &[u8] which will be used to create a Box<[u8]>
let slice: &[u8] = &[104, 101, 108, 108, 111];
let boxed_slice: Box<[u8]> = Box::from(slice);

println!("{boxed_slice:?}");
Run

Converts a &CStr into a Box<CStr>, by copying the contents into a newly allocated Box.

Converts a str into a box of dyn Error.

Examples
use std::error::Error;
use std::mem;

let a_str_error = "a str error";
let a_boxed_error = Box::<dyn Error>::from(a_str_error);
assert!(mem::size_of::<Box<dyn Error>>() == mem::size_of_val(&a_boxed_error))
Run

Converts a str into a box of dyn Error + Send + Sync.

Examples
use std::error::Error;
use std::mem;

let a_str_error = "a str error";
let a_boxed_error = Box::<dyn Error + Send + Sync>::from(a_str_error);
assert!(
    mem::size_of::<Box<dyn Error + Send + Sync>>() == mem::size_of_val(&a_boxed_error))
Run

Converts a &str into a Box<str>

This conversion allocates on the heap and performs a copy of s.

Examples
let boxed: Box<str> = Box::from("hello");
println!("{boxed}");
Run

Converts a [T; N] into a Box<[T]>

This conversion moves the array to newly heap-allocated memory.

Examples
let boxed: Box<[u8]> = Box::from([4, 2]);
println!("{boxed:?}");
Run

Converts a CString into a Box<CStr> without copying or allocating.

Converts a Cow<'_, [T]> into a Box<[T]>

When cow is the Cow::Borrowed variant, this conversion allocates on the heap and copies the underlying slice. Otherwise, it will try to reuse the owned Vec’s allocation.

Converts a Cow<'a, CStr> into a Box<CStr>, by copying the contents if they are borrowed.

Converts a Cow<'_, str> into a Box<str>

When cow is the Cow::Borrowed variant, this conversion allocates on the heap and copies the underlying str. Otherwise, it will try to reuse the owned String’s allocation.

Examples
use std::borrow::Cow;

let unboxed = Cow::Borrowed("hello");
let boxed: Box<str> = Box::from(unboxed);
println!("{boxed}");
Run
let unboxed = Cow::Owned("hello".to_string());
let boxed: Box<str> = Box::from(unboxed);
println!("{boxed}");
Run

Converts a Cow into a box of dyn Error.

Examples
use std::error::Error;
use std::mem;
use std::borrow::Cow;

let a_cow_str_error = Cow::from("a str error");
let a_boxed_error = Box::<dyn Error>::from(a_cow_str_error);
assert!(mem::size_of::<Box<dyn Error>>() == mem::size_of_val(&a_boxed_error))
Run

Converts a Cow into a box of dyn Error + Send + Sync.

Examples
use std::error::Error;
use std::mem;
use std::borrow::Cow;

let a_cow_str_error = Cow::from("a str error");
let a_boxed_error = Box::<dyn Error + Send + Sync>::from(a_cow_str_error);
assert!(
    mem::size_of::<Box<dyn Error + Send + Sync>>() == mem::size_of_val(&a_boxed_error))
Run

Converts a type of Error into a box of dyn Error.

Examples
use std::error::Error;
use std::fmt;
use std::mem;

#[derive(Debug)]
struct AnError;

impl fmt::Display for AnError {
    fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> fmt::Result {
        write!(f, "An error")
    }
}

impl Error for AnError {}

let an_error = AnError;
assert!(0 == mem::size_of_val(&an_error));
let a_boxed_error = Box::<dyn Error>::from(an_error);
assert!(mem::size_of::<Box<dyn Error>>() == mem::size_of_val(&a_boxed_error))
Run

Converts a type of Error + Send + Sync into a box of dyn Error + Send + Sync.

Examples
use std::error::Error;
use std::fmt;
use std::mem;

#[derive(Debug)]
struct AnError;

impl fmt::Display for AnError {
    fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> fmt::Result {
        write!(f, "An error")
    }
}

impl Error for AnError {}

unsafe impl Send for AnError {}

unsafe impl Sync for AnError {}

let an_error = AnError;
assert!(0 == mem::size_of_val(&an_error));
let a_boxed_error = Box::<dyn Error + Send + Sync>::from(an_error);
assert!(
    mem::size_of::<Box<dyn Error + Send + Sync>>() == mem::size_of_val(&a_boxed_error))
Run

Converts a String into a box of dyn Error.

Examples
use std::error::Error;
use std::mem;

let a_string_error = "a string error".to_string();
let a_boxed_error = Box::<dyn Error>::from(a_string_error);
assert!(mem::size_of::<Box<dyn Error>>() == mem::size_of_val(&a_boxed_error))
Run

Converts a String into a box of dyn Error + Send + Sync.

Examples
use std::error::Error;
use std::mem;

let a_string_error = "a string error".to_string();
let a_boxed_error = Box::<dyn Error + Send + Sync>::from(a_string_error);
assert!(
    mem::size_of::<Box<dyn Error + Send + Sync>>() == mem::size_of_val(&a_boxed_error))
Run

Converts the given String to a boxed str slice that is owned.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s1: String = String::from("hello world");
let s2: Box<str> = Box::from(s1);
let s3: String = String::from(s2);

assert_eq!("hello world", s3)
Run

Converts a T into a Box<T>

The conversion allocates on the heap and moves t from the stack into it.

Examples
let x = 5;
let boxed = Box::new(5);

assert_eq!(Box::from(x), boxed);
Run
Creates a value from an iterator. Read more

Attempts to convert a Box<[T]> into a Box<[T; N]>.

The conversion occurs in-place and does not require a new memory allocation.

Errors

Returns the old Box<[T]> in the Err variant if boxed_slice.len() does not equal N.

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Attempts to convert a Vec<T> into a Box<[T; N]>.

Like Vec::into_boxed_slice, this is in-place if vec.capacity() == N, but will require a reallocation otherwise.

Errors

Returns the original Vec<T> in the Err variant if boxed_slice.len() does not equal N.

Examples

This can be used with vec! to create an array on the heap:

let state: Box<[f32; 100]> = vec![1.0; 100].try_into().unwrap();
assert_eq!(state.len(), 100);
Run
The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Auto Trait Implementations§

Blanket Implementations§

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more
Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Returns the argument unchanged.

Calls U::from(self).

That is, this conversion is whatever the implementation of From<T> for U chooses to do.

The resulting type after obtaining ownership.
Creates owned data from borrowed data, usually by cloning. Read more
Uses borrowed data to replace owned data, usually by cloning. Read more
The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
Performs the conversion.
The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
Performs the conversion.