Struct hashbrown::set::HashSet

source ·
pub struct HashSet<T, S = DefaultHashBuilder, A: Allocator + Clone = Global> {
    pub(crate) map: HashMap<T, (), S, A>,
}
Expand description

A hash set implemented as a HashMap where the value is ().

As with the HashMap type, a HashSet requires that the elements implement the Eq and Hash traits. This can frequently be achieved by using #[derive(PartialEq, Eq, Hash)]. If you implement these yourself, it is important that the following property holds:

k1 == k2 -> hash(k1) == hash(k2)

In other words, if two keys are equal, their hashes must be equal.

It is a logic error for an item to be modified in such a way that the item’s hash, as determined by the Hash trait, or its equality, as determined by the Eq trait, changes while it is in the set. This is normally only possible through Cell, RefCell, global state, I/O, or unsafe code.

It is also a logic error for the Hash implementation of a key to panic. This is generally only possible if the trait is implemented manually. If a panic does occur then the contents of the HashSet may become corrupted and some items may be dropped from the table.

Examples

use hashbrown::HashSet;
// Type inference lets us omit an explicit type signature (which
// would be `HashSet<String>` in this example).
let mut books = HashSet::new();

// Add some books.
books.insert("A Dance With Dragons".to_string());
books.insert("To Kill a Mockingbird".to_string());
books.insert("The Odyssey".to_string());
books.insert("The Great Gatsby".to_string());

// Check for a specific one.
if !books.contains("The Winds of Winter") {
    println!("We have {} books, but The Winds of Winter ain't one.",
             books.len());
}

// Remove a book.
books.remove("The Odyssey");

// Iterate over everything.
for book in &books {
    println!("{}", book);
}

The easiest way to use HashSet with a custom type is to derive Eq and Hash. We must also derive PartialEq. This will in the future be implied by Eq.

use hashbrown::HashSet;
#[derive(Hash, Eq, PartialEq, Debug)]
struct Viking {
    name: String,
    power: usize,
}

let mut vikings = HashSet::new();

vikings.insert(Viking { name: "Einar".to_string(), power: 9 });
vikings.insert(Viking { name: "Einar".to_string(), power: 9 });
vikings.insert(Viking { name: "Olaf".to_string(), power: 4 });
vikings.insert(Viking { name: "Harald".to_string(), power: 8 });

// Use derived implementation to print the vikings.
for x in &vikings {
    println!("{:?}", x);
}

A HashSet with fixed list of elements can be initialized from an array:

use hashbrown::HashSet;

let viking_names: HashSet<&'static str> =
    [ "Einar", "Olaf", "Harald" ].iter().cloned().collect();
// use the values stored in the set

Fields§

§map: HashMap<T, (), S, A>

Implementations§

Returns the number of elements the set can hold without reallocating.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;
let set: HashSet<i32> = HashSet::with_capacity(100);
assert!(set.capacity() >= 100);

An iterator visiting all elements in arbitrary order. The iterator element type is &'a T.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;
let mut set = HashSet::new();
set.insert("a");
set.insert("b");

// Will print in an arbitrary order.
for x in set.iter() {
    println!("{}", x);
}

Returns the number of elements in the set.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;

let mut v = HashSet::new();
assert_eq!(v.len(), 0);
v.insert(1);
assert_eq!(v.len(), 1);

Returns true if the set contains no elements.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;

let mut v = HashSet::new();
assert!(v.is_empty());
v.insert(1);
assert!(!v.is_empty());

Clears the set, returning all elements in an iterator.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;

let mut set: HashSet<_> = [1, 2, 3].iter().cloned().collect();
assert!(!set.is_empty());

// print 1, 2, 3 in an arbitrary order
for i in set.drain() {
    println!("{}", i);
}

assert!(set.is_empty());

Retains only the elements specified by the predicate.

In other words, remove all elements e such that f(&e) returns false.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;

let xs = [1,2,3,4,5,6];
let mut set: HashSet<i32> = xs.iter().cloned().collect();
set.retain(|&k| k % 2 == 0);
assert_eq!(set.len(), 3);

Drains elements which are true under the given predicate, and returns an iterator over the removed items.

In other words, move all elements e such that f(&e) returns true out into another iterator.

When the returned DrainedFilter is dropped, any remaining elements that satisfy the predicate are dropped from the set.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;

let mut set: HashSet<i32> = (0..8).collect();
let drained: HashSet<i32> = set.drain_filter(|v| v % 2 == 0).collect();

let mut evens = drained.into_iter().collect::<Vec<_>>();
let mut odds = set.into_iter().collect::<Vec<_>>();
evens.sort();
odds.sort();

assert_eq!(evens, vec![0, 2, 4, 6]);
assert_eq!(odds, vec![1, 3, 5, 7]);

Clears the set, removing all values.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;

let mut v = HashSet::new();
v.insert(1);
v.clear();
assert!(v.is_empty());

Creates a new empty hash set which will use the given hasher to hash keys.

The hash set is also created with the default initial capacity.

Warning: hasher is normally randomly generated, and is designed to allow HashSets to be resistant to attacks that cause many collisions and very poor performance. Setting it manually using this function can expose a DoS attack vector.

The hash_builder passed should implement the BuildHasher trait for the HashMap to be useful, see its documentation for details.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;
use hashbrown::hash_map::DefaultHashBuilder;

let s = DefaultHashBuilder::default();
let mut set = HashSet::with_hasher(s);
set.insert(2);

Creates an empty HashSet with the specified capacity, using hasher to hash the keys.

The hash set will be able to hold at least capacity elements without reallocating. If capacity is 0, the hash set will not allocate.

Warning: hasher is normally randomly generated, and is designed to allow HashSets to be resistant to attacks that cause many collisions and very poor performance. Setting it manually using this function can expose a DoS attack vector.

The hash_builder passed should implement the BuildHasher trait for the HashMap to be useful, see its documentation for details.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;
use hashbrown::hash_map::DefaultHashBuilder;

let s = DefaultHashBuilder::default();
let mut set = HashSet::with_capacity_and_hasher(10, s);
set.insert(1);

Returns a reference to the underlying allocator.

Creates a new empty hash set which will use the given hasher to hash keys.

The hash set is also created with the default initial capacity.

Warning: hasher is normally randomly generated, and is designed to allow HashSets to be resistant to attacks that cause many collisions and very poor performance. Setting it manually using this function can expose a DoS attack vector.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;
use hashbrown::hash_map::DefaultHashBuilder;

let s = DefaultHashBuilder::default();
let mut set = HashSet::with_hasher(s);
set.insert(2);

Creates an empty HashSet with the specified capacity, using hasher to hash the keys.

The hash set will be able to hold at least capacity elements without reallocating. If capacity is 0, the hash set will not allocate.

Warning: hasher is normally randomly generated, and is designed to allow HashSets to be resistant to attacks that cause many collisions and very poor performance. Setting it manually using this function can expose a DoS attack vector.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;
use hashbrown::hash_map::DefaultHashBuilder;

let s = DefaultHashBuilder::default();
let mut set = HashSet::with_capacity_and_hasher(10, s);
set.insert(1);

Returns a reference to the set’s BuildHasher.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;
use hashbrown::hash_map::DefaultHashBuilder;

let hasher = DefaultHashBuilder::default();
let set: HashSet<i32> = HashSet::with_hasher(hasher);
let hasher: &DefaultHashBuilder = set.hasher();

Reserves capacity for at least additional more elements to be inserted in the HashSet. The collection may reserve more space to avoid frequent reallocations.

Panics

Panics if the new allocation size overflows usize.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;
let mut set: HashSet<i32> = HashSet::new();
set.reserve(10);
assert!(set.capacity() >= 10);

Tries to reserve capacity for at least additional more elements to be inserted in the given HashSet<K,V>. The collection may reserve more space to avoid frequent reallocations.

Errors

If the capacity overflows, or the allocator reports a failure, then an error is returned.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;
let mut set: HashSet<i32> = HashSet::new();
set.try_reserve(10).expect("why is the test harness OOMing on 10 bytes?");

Shrinks the capacity of the set as much as possible. It will drop down as much as possible while maintaining the internal rules and possibly leaving some space in accordance with the resize policy.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;

let mut set = HashSet::with_capacity(100);
set.insert(1);
set.insert(2);
assert!(set.capacity() >= 100);
set.shrink_to_fit();
assert!(set.capacity() >= 2);

Shrinks the capacity of the set with a lower limit. It will drop down no lower than the supplied limit while maintaining the internal rules and possibly leaving some space in accordance with the resize policy.

Panics if the current capacity is smaller than the supplied minimum capacity.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;

let mut set = HashSet::with_capacity(100);
set.insert(1);
set.insert(2);
assert!(set.capacity() >= 100);
set.shrink_to(10);
assert!(set.capacity() >= 10);
set.shrink_to(0);
assert!(set.capacity() >= 2);

Visits the values representing the difference, i.e., the values that are in self but not in other.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;
let a: HashSet<_> = [1, 2, 3].iter().cloned().collect();
let b: HashSet<_> = [4, 2, 3, 4].iter().cloned().collect();

// Can be seen as `a - b`.
for x in a.difference(&b) {
    println!("{}", x); // Print 1
}

let diff: HashSet<_> = a.difference(&b).collect();
assert_eq!(diff, [1].iter().collect());

// Note that difference is not symmetric,
// and `b - a` means something else:
let diff: HashSet<_> = b.difference(&a).collect();
assert_eq!(diff, [4].iter().collect());

Visits the values representing the symmetric difference, i.e., the values that are in self or in other but not in both.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;
let a: HashSet<_> = [1, 2, 3].iter().cloned().collect();
let b: HashSet<_> = [4, 2, 3, 4].iter().cloned().collect();

// Print 1, 4 in arbitrary order.
for x in a.symmetric_difference(&b) {
    println!("{}", x);
}

let diff1: HashSet<_> = a.symmetric_difference(&b).collect();
let diff2: HashSet<_> = b.symmetric_difference(&a).collect();

assert_eq!(diff1, diff2);
assert_eq!(diff1, [1, 4].iter().collect());

Visits the values representing the intersection, i.e., the values that are both in self and other.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;
let a: HashSet<_> = [1, 2, 3].iter().cloned().collect();
let b: HashSet<_> = [4, 2, 3, 4].iter().cloned().collect();

// Print 2, 3 in arbitrary order.
for x in a.intersection(&b) {
    println!("{}", x);
}

let intersection: HashSet<_> = a.intersection(&b).collect();
assert_eq!(intersection, [2, 3].iter().collect());

Visits the values representing the union, i.e., all the values in self or other, without duplicates.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;
let a: HashSet<_> = [1, 2, 3].iter().cloned().collect();
let b: HashSet<_> = [4, 2, 3, 4].iter().cloned().collect();

// Print 1, 2, 3, 4 in arbitrary order.
for x in a.union(&b) {
    println!("{}", x);
}

let union: HashSet<_> = a.union(&b).collect();
assert_eq!(union, [1, 2, 3, 4].iter().collect());

Returns true if the set contains a value.

The value may be any borrowed form of the set’s value type, but Hash and Eq on the borrowed form must match those for the value type.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;

let set: HashSet<_> = [1, 2, 3].iter().cloned().collect();
assert_eq!(set.contains(&1), true);
assert_eq!(set.contains(&4), false);

Returns a reference to the value in the set, if any, that is equal to the given value.

The value may be any borrowed form of the set’s value type, but Hash and Eq on the borrowed form must match those for the value type.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;

let set: HashSet<_> = [1, 2, 3].iter().cloned().collect();
assert_eq!(set.get(&2), Some(&2));
assert_eq!(set.get(&4), None);

Inserts the given value into the set if it is not present, then returns a reference to the value in the set.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;

let mut set: HashSet<_> = [1, 2, 3].iter().cloned().collect();
assert_eq!(set.len(), 3);
assert_eq!(set.get_or_insert(2), &2);
assert_eq!(set.get_or_insert(100), &100);
assert_eq!(set.len(), 4); // 100 was inserted

Inserts an owned copy of the given value into the set if it is not present, then returns a reference to the value in the set.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;

let mut set: HashSet<String> = ["cat", "dog", "horse"]
    .iter().map(|&pet| pet.to_owned()).collect();

assert_eq!(set.len(), 3);
for &pet in &["cat", "dog", "fish"] {
    let value = set.get_or_insert_owned(pet);
    assert_eq!(value, pet);
}
assert_eq!(set.len(), 4); // a new "fish" was inserted

Inserts a value computed from f into the set if the given value is not present, then returns a reference to the value in the set.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;

let mut set: HashSet<String> = ["cat", "dog", "horse"]
    .iter().map(|&pet| pet.to_owned()).collect();

assert_eq!(set.len(), 3);
for &pet in &["cat", "dog", "fish"] {
    let value = set.get_or_insert_with(pet, str::to_owned);
    assert_eq!(value, pet);
}
assert_eq!(set.len(), 4); // a new "fish" was inserted

Gets the given value’s corresponding entry in the set for in-place manipulation.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;
use hashbrown::hash_set::Entry::*;

let mut singles = HashSet::new();
let mut dupes = HashSet::new();

for ch in "a short treatise on fungi".chars() {
    if let Vacant(dupe_entry) = dupes.entry(ch) {
        // We haven't already seen a duplicate, so
        // check if we've at least seen it once.
        match singles.entry(ch) {
            Vacant(single_entry) => {
                // We found a new character for the first time.
                single_entry.insert()
            }
            Occupied(single_entry) => {
                // We've already seen this once, "move" it to dupes.
                single_entry.remove();
                dupe_entry.insert();
            }
        }
    }
}

assert!(!singles.contains(&'t') && dupes.contains(&'t'));
assert!(singles.contains(&'u') && !dupes.contains(&'u'));
assert!(!singles.contains(&'v') && !dupes.contains(&'v'));

Returns true if self has no elements in common with other. This is equivalent to checking for an empty intersection.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;

let a: HashSet<_> = [1, 2, 3].iter().cloned().collect();
let mut b = HashSet::new();

assert_eq!(a.is_disjoint(&b), true);
b.insert(4);
assert_eq!(a.is_disjoint(&b), true);
b.insert(1);
assert_eq!(a.is_disjoint(&b), false);

Returns true if the set is a subset of another, i.e., other contains at least all the values in self.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;

let sup: HashSet<_> = [1, 2, 3].iter().cloned().collect();
let mut set = HashSet::new();

assert_eq!(set.is_subset(&sup), true);
set.insert(2);
assert_eq!(set.is_subset(&sup), true);
set.insert(4);
assert_eq!(set.is_subset(&sup), false);

Returns true if the set is a superset of another, i.e., self contains at least all the values in other.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;

let sub: HashSet<_> = [1, 2].iter().cloned().collect();
let mut set = HashSet::new();

assert_eq!(set.is_superset(&sub), false);

set.insert(0);
set.insert(1);
assert_eq!(set.is_superset(&sub), false);

set.insert(2);
assert_eq!(set.is_superset(&sub), true);

Adds a value to the set.

If the set did not have this value present, true is returned.

If the set did have this value present, false is returned.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;

let mut set = HashSet::new();

assert_eq!(set.insert(2), true);
assert_eq!(set.insert(2), false);
assert_eq!(set.len(), 1);

Insert a value the set without checking if the value already exists in the set.

Returns a reference to the value just inserted.

This operation is safe if a value does not exist in the set.

However, if a value exists in the set already, the behavior is unspecified: this operation may panic, loop forever, or any following operation with the set may panic, loop forever or return arbitrary result.

That said, this operation (and following operations) are guaranteed to not violate memory safety.

This operation is faster than regular insert, because it does not perform lookup before insertion.

This operation is useful during initial population of the set. For example, when constructing a set from another set, we know that values are unique.

Adds a value to the set, replacing the existing value, if any, that is equal to the given one. Returns the replaced value.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;

let mut set = HashSet::new();
set.insert(Vec::<i32>::new());

assert_eq!(set.get(&[][..]).unwrap().capacity(), 0);
set.replace(Vec::with_capacity(10));
assert_eq!(set.get(&[][..]).unwrap().capacity(), 10);

Removes a value from the set. Returns whether the value was present in the set.

The value may be any borrowed form of the set’s value type, but Hash and Eq on the borrowed form must match those for the value type.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;

let mut set = HashSet::new();

set.insert(2);
assert_eq!(set.remove(&2), true);
assert_eq!(set.remove(&2), false);

Removes and returns the value in the set, if any, that is equal to the given one.

The value may be any borrowed form of the set’s value type, but Hash and Eq on the borrowed form must match those for the value type.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;

let mut set: HashSet<_> = [1, 2, 3].iter().cloned().collect();
assert_eq!(set.take(&2), Some(2));
assert_eq!(set.take(&2), None);

Trait Implementations§

Returns the intersection of self and rhs as a new HashSet<T, S>.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;

let a: HashSet<_> = vec![1, 2, 3].into_iter().collect();
let b: HashSet<_> = vec![2, 3, 4].into_iter().collect();

let set = &a & &b;

let mut i = 0;
let expected = [2, 3];
for x in &set {
    assert!(expected.contains(x));
    i += 1;
}
assert_eq!(i, expected.len());
The resulting type after applying the & operator.

Returns the union of self and rhs as a new HashSet<T, S>.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;

let a: HashSet<_> = vec![1, 2, 3].into_iter().collect();
let b: HashSet<_> = vec![3, 4, 5].into_iter().collect();

let set = &a | &b;

let mut i = 0;
let expected = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
for x in &set {
    assert!(expected.contains(x));
    i += 1;
}
assert_eq!(i, expected.len());
The resulting type after applying the | operator.

Returns the symmetric difference of self and rhs as a new HashSet<T, S>.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;

let a: HashSet<_> = vec![1, 2, 3].into_iter().collect();
let b: HashSet<_> = vec![3, 4, 5].into_iter().collect();

let set = &a ^ &b;

let mut i = 0;
let expected = [1, 2, 4, 5];
for x in &set {
    assert!(expected.contains(x));
    i += 1;
}
assert_eq!(i, expected.len());
The resulting type after applying the ^ operator.
Returns a copy of the value. Read more
Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more
Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more

Creates an empty HashSet<T, S> with the Default value for the hasher.

Extends a collection with the contents of an iterator. Read more
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (extend_one)
Extends a collection with exactly one element.
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (extend_one)
Reserves capacity in a collection for the given number of additional elements. Read more
Extends a collection with the contents of an iterator. Read more
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (extend_one)
Extends a collection with exactly one element.
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (extend_one)
Reserves capacity in a collection for the given number of additional elements. Read more
Converts to this type from the input type.
Creates a value from an iterator. Read more
The type of the elements being iterated over.
Which kind of iterator are we turning this into?
Creates an iterator from a value. Read more

Creates a consuming iterator, that is, one that moves each value out of the set in arbitrary order. The set cannot be used after calling this.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;
let mut set = HashSet::new();
set.insert("a".to_string());
set.insert("b".to_string());

// Not possible to collect to a Vec<String> with a regular `.iter()`.
let v: Vec<String> = set.into_iter().collect();

// Will print in an arbitrary order.
for x in &v {
    println!("{}", x);
}
The type of the elements being iterated over.
Which kind of iterator are we turning this into?
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.

Returns the difference of self and rhs as a new HashSet<T, S>.

Examples
use hashbrown::HashSet;

let a: HashSet<_> = vec![1, 2, 3].into_iter().collect();
let b: HashSet<_> = vec![3, 4, 5].into_iter().collect();

let set = &a - &b;

let mut i = 0;
let expected = [1, 2];
for x in &set {
    assert!(expected.contains(x));
    i += 1;
}
assert_eq!(i, expected.len());
The resulting type after applying the - operator.

Auto Trait Implementations§

Blanket Implementations§

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more
Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Returns the argument unchanged.

Calls U::from(self).

That is, this conversion is whatever the implementation of From<T> for U chooses to do.

The resulting type after obtaining ownership.
Creates owned data from borrowed data, usually by cloning. Read more
Uses borrowed data to replace owned data, usually by cloning. Read more
The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
Performs the conversion.
The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
Performs the conversion.