Enum core::option::Option

1.0.0 · source ·
pub enum Option<T> {
    None,
    Some(T),
}
Expand description

The Option type. See the module level documentation for more.

Variants§

§

None

No value.

§

Some(T)

Some value of type T.

Implementations§

Returns true if the option is a Some value.

Examples
let x: Option<u32> = Some(2);
assert_eq!(x.is_some(), true);

let x: Option<u32> = None;
assert_eq!(x.is_some(), false);
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (is_some_and #93050)

Returns true if the option is a Some and the value inside of it matches a predicate.

Examples
#![feature(is_some_and)]

let x: Option<u32> = Some(2);
assert_eq!(x.is_some_and(|x| x > 1), true);

let x: Option<u32> = Some(0);
assert_eq!(x.is_some_and(|x| x > 1), false);

let x: Option<u32> = None;
assert_eq!(x.is_some_and(|x| x > 1), false);
Run

Returns true if the option is a None value.

Examples
let x: Option<u32> = Some(2);
assert_eq!(x.is_none(), false);

let x: Option<u32> = None;
assert_eq!(x.is_none(), true);
Run

Converts from &Option<T> to Option<&T>.

Examples

Converts an Option<String> into an Option<usize>, preserving the original. The map method takes the self argument by value, consuming the original, so this technique uses as_ref to first take an Option to a reference to the value inside the original.

let text: Option<String> = Some("Hello, world!".to_string());
// First, cast `Option<String>` to `Option<&String>` with `as_ref`,
// then consume *that* with `map`, leaving `text` on the stack.
let text_length: Option<usize> = text.as_ref().map(|s| s.len());
println!("still can print text: {text:?}");
Run

Converts from &mut Option<T> to Option<&mut T>.

Examples
let mut x = Some(2);
match x.as_mut() {
    Some(v) => *v = 42,
    None => {},
}
assert_eq!(x, Some(42));
Run

Converts from Pin<&Option<T>> to Option<Pin<&T>>.

Converts from Pin<&mut Option<T>> to Option<Pin<&mut T>>.

Returns the contained Some value, consuming the self value.

Panics

Panics if the value is a None with a custom panic message provided by msg.

Examples
let x = Some("value");
assert_eq!(x.expect("fruits are healthy"), "value");
Run
let x: Option<&str> = None;
x.expect("fruits are healthy"); // panics with `fruits are healthy`
Run

We recommend that expect messages are used to describe the reason you expect the Option should be Some.

let item = slice.get(0)
    .expect("slice should not be empty");
Run

Hint: If you’re having trouble remembering how to phrase expect error messages remember to focus on the word “should” as in “env variable should be set by blah” or “the given binary should be available and executable by the current user”.

For more detail on expect message styles and the reasoning behind our recommendation please refer to the section on “Common Message Styles” in the std::error module docs.

Returns the contained Some value, consuming the self value.

Because this function may panic, its use is generally discouraged. Instead, prefer to use pattern matching and handle the None case explicitly, or call unwrap_or, unwrap_or_else, or unwrap_or_default.

Panics

Panics if the self value equals None.

Examples
let x = Some("air");
assert_eq!(x.unwrap(), "air");
Run
let x: Option<&str> = None;
assert_eq!(x.unwrap(), "air"); // fails
Run

Returns the contained Some value or a provided default.

Arguments passed to unwrap_or are eagerly evaluated; if you are passing the result of a function call, it is recommended to use unwrap_or_else, which is lazily evaluated.

Examples
assert_eq!(Some("car").unwrap_or("bike"), "car");
assert_eq!(None.unwrap_or("bike"), "bike");
Run

Returns the contained Some value or computes it from a closure.

Examples
let k = 10;
assert_eq!(Some(4).unwrap_or_else(|| 2 * k), 4);
assert_eq!(None.unwrap_or_else(|| 2 * k), 20);
Run

Returns the contained Some value or a default.

Consumes the self argument then, if Some, returns the contained value, otherwise if None, returns the default value for that type.

Examples
let x: Option<u32> = None;
let y: Option<u32> = Some(12);

assert_eq!(x.unwrap_or_default(), 0);
assert_eq!(y.unwrap_or_default(), 12);
Run

Returns the contained Some value, consuming the self value, without checking that the value is not None.

Safety

Calling this method on None is undefined behavior.

Examples
let x = Some("air");
assert_eq!(unsafe { x.unwrap_unchecked() }, "air");
Run
let x: Option<&str> = None;
assert_eq!(unsafe { x.unwrap_unchecked() }, "air"); // Undefined behavior!
Run

Maps an Option<T> to Option<U> by applying a function to a contained value.

Examples

Converts an Option<String> into an Option<usize>, consuming the original:

let maybe_some_string = Some(String::from("Hello, World!"));
// `Option::map` takes self *by value*, consuming `maybe_some_string`
let maybe_some_len = maybe_some_string.map(|s| s.len());

assert_eq!(maybe_some_len, Some(13));
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (result_option_inspect #91345)

Calls the provided closure with a reference to the contained value (if Some).

Examples
#![feature(result_option_inspect)]

let v = vec![1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

// prints "got: 4"
let x: Option<&usize> = v.get(3).inspect(|x| println!("got: {x}"));

// prints nothing
let x: Option<&usize> = v.get(5).inspect(|x| println!("got: {x}"));
Run

Returns the provided default result (if none), or applies a function to the contained value (if any).

Arguments passed to map_or are eagerly evaluated; if you are passing the result of a function call, it is recommended to use map_or_else, which is lazily evaluated.

Examples
let x = Some("foo");
assert_eq!(x.map_or(42, |v| v.len()), 3);

let x: Option<&str> = None;
assert_eq!(x.map_or(42, |v| v.len()), 42);
Run

Computes a default function result (if none), or applies a different function to the contained value (if any).

Examples
let k = 21;

let x = Some("foo");
assert_eq!(x.map_or_else(|| 2 * k, |v| v.len()), 3);

let x: Option<&str> = None;
assert_eq!(x.map_or_else(|| 2 * k, |v| v.len()), 42);
Run

Transforms the Option<T> into a Result<T, E>, mapping Some(v) to Ok(v) and None to Err(err).

Arguments passed to ok_or are eagerly evaluated; if you are passing the result of a function call, it is recommended to use ok_or_else, which is lazily evaluated.

Examples
let x = Some("foo");
assert_eq!(x.ok_or(0), Ok("foo"));

let x: Option<&str> = None;
assert_eq!(x.ok_or(0), Err(0));
Run

Transforms the Option<T> into a Result<T, E>, mapping Some(v) to Ok(v) and None to Err(err()).

Examples
let x = Some("foo");
assert_eq!(x.ok_or_else(|| 0), Ok("foo"));

let x: Option<&str> = None;
assert_eq!(x.ok_or_else(|| 0), Err(0));
Run

Converts from Option<T> (or &Option<T>) to Option<&T::Target>.

Leaves the original Option in-place, creating a new one with a reference to the original one, additionally coercing the contents via Deref.

Examples
let x: Option<String> = Some("hey".to_owned());
assert_eq!(x.as_deref(), Some("hey"));

let x: Option<String> = None;
assert_eq!(x.as_deref(), None);
Run

Converts from Option<T> (or &mut Option<T>) to Option<&mut T::Target>.

Leaves the original Option in-place, creating a new one containing a mutable reference to the inner type’s Deref::Target type.

Examples
let mut x: Option<String> = Some("hey".to_owned());
assert_eq!(x.as_deref_mut().map(|x| {
    x.make_ascii_uppercase();
    x
}), Some("HEY".to_owned().as_mut_str()));
Run

Returns an iterator over the possibly contained value.

Examples
let x = Some(4);
assert_eq!(x.iter().next(), Some(&4));

let x: Option<u32> = None;
assert_eq!(x.iter().next(), None);
Run

Returns a mutable iterator over the possibly contained value.

Examples
let mut x = Some(4);
match x.iter_mut().next() {
    Some(v) => *v = 42,
    None => {},
}
assert_eq!(x, Some(42));

let mut x: Option<u32> = None;
assert_eq!(x.iter_mut().next(), None);
Run

Returns None if the option is None, otherwise returns optb.

Arguments passed to and are eagerly evaluated; if you are passing the result of a function call, it is recommended to use and_then, which is lazily evaluated.

Examples
let x = Some(2);
let y: Option<&str> = None;
assert_eq!(x.and(y), None);

let x: Option<u32> = None;
let y = Some("foo");
assert_eq!(x.and(y), None);

let x = Some(2);
let y = Some("foo");
assert_eq!(x.and(y), Some("foo"));

let x: Option<u32> = None;
let y: Option<&str> = None;
assert_eq!(x.and(y), None);
Run

Returns None if the option is None, otherwise calls f with the wrapped value and returns the result.

Some languages call this operation flatmap.

Examples
fn sq_then_to_string(x: u32) -> Option<String> {
    x.checked_mul(x).map(|sq| sq.to_string())
}

assert_eq!(Some(2).and_then(sq_then_to_string), Some(4.to_string()));
assert_eq!(Some(1_000_000).and_then(sq_then_to_string), None); // overflowed!
assert_eq!(None.and_then(sq_then_to_string), None);
Run

Often used to chain fallible operations that may return None.

let arr_2d = [["A0", "A1"], ["B0", "B1"]];

let item_0_1 = arr_2d.get(0).and_then(|row| row.get(1));
assert_eq!(item_0_1, Some(&"A1"));

let item_2_0 = arr_2d.get(2).and_then(|row| row.get(0));
assert_eq!(item_2_0, None);
Run

Returns None if the option is None, otherwise calls predicate with the wrapped value and returns:

  • Some(t) if predicate returns true (where t is the wrapped value), and
  • None if predicate returns false.

This function works similar to Iterator::filter(). You can imagine the Option<T> being an iterator over one or zero elements. filter() lets you decide which elements to keep.

Examples
fn is_even(n: &i32) -> bool {
    n % 2 == 0
}

assert_eq!(None.filter(is_even), None);
assert_eq!(Some(3).filter(is_even), None);
assert_eq!(Some(4).filter(is_even), Some(4));
Run

Returns the option if it contains a value, otherwise returns optb.

Arguments passed to or are eagerly evaluated; if you are passing the result of a function call, it is recommended to use or_else, which is lazily evaluated.

Examples
let x = Some(2);
let y = None;
assert_eq!(x.or(y), Some(2));

let x = None;
let y = Some(100);
assert_eq!(x.or(y), Some(100));

let x = Some(2);
let y = Some(100);
assert_eq!(x.or(y), Some(2));

let x: Option<u32> = None;
let y = None;
assert_eq!(x.or(y), None);
Run

Returns the option if it contains a value, otherwise calls f and returns the result.

Examples
fn nobody() -> Option<&'static str> { None }
fn vikings() -> Option<&'static str> { Some("vikings") }

assert_eq!(Some("barbarians").or_else(vikings), Some("barbarians"));
assert_eq!(None.or_else(vikings), Some("vikings"));
assert_eq!(None.or_else(nobody), None);
Run

Returns Some if exactly one of self, optb is Some, otherwise returns None.

Examples
let x = Some(2);
let y: Option<u32> = None;
assert_eq!(x.xor(y), Some(2));

let x: Option<u32> = None;
let y = Some(2);
assert_eq!(x.xor(y), Some(2));

let x = Some(2);
let y = Some(2);
assert_eq!(x.xor(y), None);

let x: Option<u32> = None;
let y: Option<u32> = None;
assert_eq!(x.xor(y), None);
Run

Inserts value into the option, then returns a mutable reference to it.

If the option already contains a value, the old value is dropped.

See also Option::get_or_insert, which doesn’t update the value if the option already contains Some.

Example
let mut opt = None;
let val = opt.insert(1);
assert_eq!(*val, 1);
assert_eq!(opt.unwrap(), 1);
let val = opt.insert(2);
assert_eq!(*val, 2);
*val = 3;
assert_eq!(opt.unwrap(), 3);
Run

Inserts value into the option if it is None, then returns a mutable reference to the contained value.

See also Option::insert, which updates the value even if the option already contains Some.

Examples
let mut x = None;

{
    let y: &mut u32 = x.get_or_insert(5);
    assert_eq!(y, &5);

    *y = 7;
}

assert_eq!(x, Some(7));
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (option_get_or_insert_default #82901)

Inserts the default value into the option if it is None, then returns a mutable reference to the contained value.

Examples
#![feature(option_get_or_insert_default)]

let mut x = None;

{
    let y: &mut u32 = x.get_or_insert_default();
    assert_eq!(y, &0);

    *y = 7;
}

assert_eq!(x, Some(7));
Run

Inserts a value computed from f into the option if it is None, then returns a mutable reference to the contained value.

Examples
let mut x = None;

{
    let y: &mut u32 = x.get_or_insert_with(|| 5);
    assert_eq!(y, &5);

    *y = 7;
}

assert_eq!(x, Some(7));
Run

Takes the value out of the option, leaving a None in its place.

Examples
let mut x = Some(2);
let y = x.take();
assert_eq!(x, None);
assert_eq!(y, Some(2));

let mut x: Option<u32> = None;
let y = x.take();
assert_eq!(x, None);
assert_eq!(y, None);
Run

Replaces the actual value in the option by the value given in parameter, returning the old value if present, leaving a Some in its place without deinitializing either one.

Examples
let mut x = Some(2);
let old = x.replace(5);
assert_eq!(x, Some(5));
assert_eq!(old, Some(2));

let mut x = None;
let old = x.replace(3);
assert_eq!(x, Some(3));
assert_eq!(old, None);
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (option_result_contains #62358)

Returns true if the option is a Some value containing the given value.

Examples
#![feature(option_result_contains)]

let x: Option<u32> = Some(2);
assert_eq!(x.contains(&2), true);

let x: Option<u32> = Some(3);
assert_eq!(x.contains(&2), false);

let x: Option<u32> = None;
assert_eq!(x.contains(&2), false);
Run

Zips self with another Option.

If self is Some(s) and other is Some(o), this method returns Some((s, o)). Otherwise, None is returned.

Examples
let x = Some(1);
let y = Some("hi");
let z = None::<u8>;

assert_eq!(x.zip(y), Some((1, "hi")));
assert_eq!(x.zip(z), None);
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (option_zip #70086)

Zips self and another Option with function f.

If self is Some(s) and other is Some(o), this method returns Some(f(s, o)). Otherwise, None is returned.

Examples
#![feature(option_zip)]

#[derive(Debug, PartialEq)]
struct Point {
    x: f64,
    y: f64,
}

impl Point {
    fn new(x: f64, y: f64) -> Self {
        Self { x, y }
    }
}

let x = Some(17.5);
let y = Some(42.7);

assert_eq!(x.zip_with(y, Point::new), Some(Point { x: 17.5, y: 42.7 }));
assert_eq!(x.zip_with(None, Point::new), None);
Run

Unzips an option containing a tuple of two options.

If self is Some((a, b)) this method returns (Some(a), Some(b)). Otherwise, (None, None) is returned.

Examples
let x = Some((1, "hi"));
let y = None::<(u8, u32)>;

assert_eq!(x.unzip(), (Some(1), Some("hi")));
assert_eq!(y.unzip(), (None, None));
Run

Maps an Option<&T> to an Option<T> by copying the contents of the option.

Examples
let x = 12;
let opt_x = Some(&x);
assert_eq!(opt_x, Some(&12));
let copied = opt_x.copied();
assert_eq!(copied, Some(12));
Run

Maps an Option<&T> to an Option<T> by cloning the contents of the option.

Examples
let x = 12;
let opt_x = Some(&x);
assert_eq!(opt_x, Some(&12));
let cloned = opt_x.cloned();
assert_eq!(cloned, Some(12));
Run

Maps an Option<&mut T> to an Option<T> by copying the contents of the option.

Examples
let mut x = 12;
let opt_x = Some(&mut x);
assert_eq!(opt_x, Some(&mut 12));
let copied = opt_x.copied();
assert_eq!(copied, Some(12));
Run

Maps an Option<&mut T> to an Option<T> by cloning the contents of the option.

Examples
let mut x = 12;
let opt_x = Some(&mut x);
assert_eq!(opt_x, Some(&mut 12));
let cloned = opt_x.cloned();
assert_eq!(cloned, Some(12));
Run

Transposes an Option of a Result into a Result of an Option.

None will be mapped to Ok(None). Some(Ok(_)) and Some(Err(_)) will be mapped to Ok(Some(_)) and Err(_).

Examples
#[derive(Debug, Eq, PartialEq)]
struct SomeErr;

let x: Result<Option<i32>, SomeErr> = Ok(Some(5));
let y: Option<Result<i32, SomeErr>> = Some(Ok(5));
assert_eq!(x, y.transpose());
Run

Converts from Option<Option<T>> to Option<T>.

Examples

Basic usage:

let x: Option<Option<u32>> = Some(Some(6));
assert_eq!(Some(6), x.flatten());

let x: Option<Option<u32>> = Some(None);
assert_eq!(None, x.flatten());

let x: Option<Option<u32>> = None;
assert_eq!(None, x.flatten());
Run

Flattening only removes one level of nesting at a time:

let x: Option<Option<Option<u32>>> = Some(Some(Some(6)));
assert_eq!(Some(Some(6)), x.flatten());
assert_eq!(Some(6), x.flatten().flatten());
Run

Trait Implementations§

Returns a copy of the value. Read more
Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more
Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more

Returns None.

Examples
let opt: Option<u32> = Option::default();
assert!(opt.is_none());
Run

Converts from &Option<T> to Option<&T>.

Examples

Converts an Option<String> into an Option<usize>, preserving the original. The map method takes the self argument by value, consuming the original, so this technique uses from to first take an Option to a reference to the value inside the original.

let s: Option<String> = Some(String::from("Hello, Rustaceans!"));
let o: Option<usize> = Option::from(&s).map(|ss: &String| ss.len());

println!("Can still print s: {s:?}");

assert_eq!(o, Some(18));
Run

Converts from &mut Option<T> to Option<&mut T>

Examples
let mut s = Some(String::from("Hello"));
let o: Option<&mut String> = Option::from(&mut s);

match o {
    Some(t) => *t = String::from("Hello, Rustaceans!"),
    None => (),
}

assert_eq!(s, Some(String::from("Hello, Rustaceans!")));
Run

Moves val into a new Some.

Examples
let o: Option<u8> = Option::from(67);

assert_eq!(Some(67), o);
Run

Takes each element in the Iterator: if it is None, no further elements are taken, and the None is returned. Should no None occur, a container of type V containing the values of each Option is returned.

Examples

Here is an example which increments every integer in a vector. We use the checked variant of add that returns None when the calculation would result in an overflow.

let items = vec![0_u16, 1, 2];

let res: Option<Vec<u16>> = items
    .iter()
    .map(|x| x.checked_add(1))
    .collect();

assert_eq!(res, Some(vec![1, 2, 3]));
Run

As you can see, this will return the expected, valid items.

Here is another example that tries to subtract one from another list of integers, this time checking for underflow:

let items = vec![2_u16, 1, 0];

let res: Option<Vec<u16>> = items
    .iter()
    .map(|x| x.checked_sub(1))
    .collect();

assert_eq!(res, None);
Run

Since the last element is zero, it would underflow. Thus, the resulting value is None.

Here is a variation on the previous example, showing that no further elements are taken from iter after the first None.

let items = vec![3_u16, 2, 1, 10];

let mut shared = 0;

let res: Option<Vec<u16>> = items
    .iter()
    .map(|x| { shared += x; x.checked_sub(2) })
    .collect();

assert_eq!(res, None);
assert_eq!(shared, 6);
Run

Since the third element caused an underflow, no further elements were taken, so the final value of shared is 6 (= 3 + 2 + 1), not 16.

🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (try_trait_v2 #84277)
Constructs the type from a compatible Residual type. Read more
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (try_trait_v2 #84277)
Constructs the type from a compatible Residual type. Read more
Feeds this value into the given Hasher. Read more
Feeds a slice of this type into the given Hasher. Read more
The type of the elements being iterated over.
Which kind of iterator are we turning this into?
Creates an iterator from a value. Read more
The type of the elements being iterated over.
Which kind of iterator are we turning this into?
Creates an iterator from a value. Read more

Returns a consuming iterator over the possibly contained value.

Examples
let x = Some("string");
let v: Vec<&str> = x.into_iter().collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["string"]);

let x = None;
let v: Vec<&str> = x.into_iter().collect();
assert!(v.is_empty());
Run
The type of the elements being iterated over.
Which kind of iterator are we turning this into?
This method returns an Ordering between self and other. Read more
Compares and returns the maximum of two values. Read more
Compares and returns the minimum of two values. Read more
Restrict a value to a certain interval. Read more
This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more
This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason. Read more
This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more

Takes each element in the Iterator: if it is a None, no further elements are taken, and the None is returned. Should no None occur, the product of all elements is returned.

🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (try_trait_v2_residual #91285)
The “return” type of this meta-function.

Takes each element in the Iterator: if it is a None, no further elements are taken, and the None is returned. Should no None occur, the sum of all elements is returned.

Examples

This sums up the position of the character ‘a’ in a vector of strings, if a word did not have the character ‘a’ the operation returns None:

let words = vec!["have", "a", "great", "day"];
let total: Option<usize> = words.iter().map(|w| w.find('a')).sum();
assert_eq!(total, Some(5));
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (try_trait_v2 #84277)
The type of the value produced by ? when not short-circuiting.
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (try_trait_v2 #84277)
The type of the value passed to FromResidual::from_residual as part of ? when short-circuiting. Read more
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (try_trait_v2 #84277)
Constructs the type from its Output type. Read more
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (try_trait_v2 #84277)
Used in ? to decide whether the operator should produce a value (because this returned ControlFlow::Continue) or propagate a value back to the caller (because this returned ControlFlow::Break). Read more

Auto Trait Implementations§

Blanket Implementations§

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more
Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
Converts to this type from the input type.

Returns the argument unchanged.

Calls U::from(self).

That is, this conversion is whatever the implementation of From<T> for U chooses to do.

🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (sized_type_properties)
true if this type requires no storage. false if its size is greater than zero. Read more
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (spec_option_partial_eq)
The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
Performs the conversion.
The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
Performs the conversion.